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VSCOMP 2014, problem 1


Authors: Claude Marché

Topics: Ghost code

Tools: Why3

References: Fourth Verified Software Competition (VSComp) 2014

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The Patience Solitaire Game

Problem 1 from the Verified Software Competition 2014

Patience Solitaire is played by taking cards one-by-one from a deck of cards and arranging them face up in a sequence of stacks arranged from left to right as follows. The very first card from the deck is kept face up to form a singleton stack. Each subsequent card is placed on the leftmost stack where its card value is no greater than the topmost card on that stack. If there is no such stack, then a new stack is started to right of the other stacks. We can do this with positive numbers instead of cards. If the input sequence is 9, 7, 10, 9, 5, 4, and 10, then the stacks develop as

<[[9]]>
<[[7, 9]]>
<[[7, 9]], [[10]]>
<[[7, 9]], [[9, 10]]>
<[[5, 7, 9]], [[9, 10]]>
<[[4, 5, 7, 9]], [[9, 10]]>
<[[4, 5, 7, 9]], [[9, 10]], [[10]]>
 

Verify the claim is that the number of stacks at the end of the game is the length of the longest (strictly) increasing subsequence in the input sequence.

Preliminary: pigeon-hole lemma

module PigeonHole

The Why standard library provides a lemma map.MapInjection.injective_surjective stating that a map from (0..n-1) to (0..n-1) that is an injection is also a surjection.

This is more or less equivalent to the pigeon-hole lemma. However, we need such a lemma more generally on functions instead of maps.

Thus we restate the pigeon-hole lemma here. Proof is left as an exercise.

  use int.Int

  predicate range (f: int -> int) (n: int) (m:int) =
    forall i: int. 0 <= i < n -> 0 <= f i < m

range f n m is true when f maps the domain (0..n-1) into (0..m-1)

  predicate injective (f: int -> int) (n: int) (m:int) =
    forall i j: int. 0 <= i < j < n -> f i <> f j

injective f n m is true when f is an injection from (0..n-1) to (0..m-1)

(*
  lemma pigeon_hole2:
    forall n m:int, f: int -> int.
      range f n m /\ n > m >= 0 ->
        not (injective f n m)
*)

  exception Found

  function shift (f: int -> int) (i:int) : int -> int =
    fun k -> if k < i then f k else f (k+1)

  let rec lemma pigeon_hole (n m:int) (f: int -> int)
    requires { range f n m }
    requires { n > m >= 0 }
    variant  { m }
    ensures  { not (injective f n m) }
  =
      for i = 0 to n-1 do
        invariant { forall k. 0 <= k < i -> f k <> m-1 }
        if f i = m-1 then begin
          (* we have found index i such that f i = m-1 *)
          for j = i+1 to n-1 do
            invariant { forall k. i < k < j -> f k <> m-1 }
          (* we know that f i = f j = m-1 hence we are done *)
            if f j = m-1 then return
          done;
          (* we know that for all k <> i, f k <> m-1 *)
          let g = shift f i in
          assert { range g (n-1) (m-1) };
          pigeon_hole (n-1) (m-1) g;
          return
        end
      done;
      (* we know that for all k, f k <> m-1 *)
      assert { range f n (m-1) };
      pigeon_hole n (m-1) f

end

Patience idiomatic code

module PatienceCode

  use int.Int
  use list.List
  use list.RevAppend

this code was the one written initially, without any specification, except for termination, ans unreachability of the 'absurd' branch'.

It can be tested, see below.

  type card = int

  predicate wf_stacks (stacks: list (list card)) =
    match stacks with
    | Nil -> true
    | Cons Nil _ -> false
    | Cons (Cons _ _) rem -> wf_stacks rem
    end

stacks are well-formed if they are non-empty

  let rec lemma wf_rev_append_stacks (s1 s2: list (list int))
    requires { wf_stacks s1 }
    requires { wf_stacks s2 }
    variant { s1 }
    ensures { wf_stacks (rev_append s1 s2) }
  = match s1 with
    | Nil -> ()
    | Cons Nil _ -> absurd
    | Cons s rem -> wf_rev_append_stacks rem (Cons s s2)
    end

concatenation of well-formed stacks is well-formed

  let rec push_card (c:card) (stacks : list (list card))
     (acc : list (list card)) : list (list card)
    requires { wf_stacks stacks }
    requires { wf_stacks acc }
    variant  { stacks }
    ensures  { wf_stacks result }
  =
    match stacks with
    | Nil ->
      (* we put card `c` in a new stack *)
      rev_append (Cons (Cons c Nil) acc) Nil
    | Cons stack remaining_stacks ->
        match stack with
        | Nil -> absurd (* because `wf_stacks stacks` *)
        | Cons c' _ ->
           if c <= c' then
             (* card is placed on the leftmost stack where its card
                value is no greater than the topmost card on that
                stack *)
             rev_append (Cons (Cons c stack) acc) remaining_stacks
           else
             (* try next stack *)
             push_card c remaining_stacks (Cons stack acc)
        end
     end

push_card c stacks acc pushes card c on stacks stacks, assuming acc is an accumulator (in reverse order) of stacks where c could not be pushed.

  let rec play_cards (input: list card) (stacks: list (list card))
    : list (list card)
    requires { wf_stacks stacks }
    variant { input }
    ensures  { wf_stacks result }
  =
    match input with
    | Nil -> stacks
    | Cons c rem ->
        let stacks' = push_card c stacks Nil in
        play_cards rem stacks'
    end

  let play_game (input: list card) : list (list card) =
    play_cards input Nil

  let test () =

test, can be run using why3 patience.mlw --exec PatienceCode.test

the list given in the problem description 9, 7, 10, 9, 5, 4, and 10

    play_game
      (Cons 9 (Cons 7 (Cons 10 (Cons 9 (Cons 5 (Cons 4 (Cons 10 Nil)))))))

end

Abstract version of Patience game

module PatienceAbstract

  use int.Int

To specify the expected property of the Patience game, we first provide an abstract version, working on a abstract state that includes a lot of information regarding the positions of the cards in the stack and so on.

This abstract state should then be including in the real code as a ghost state, with a gluing invariant that matches the ghost state and the concrete stacks of cards.

  type card = int

Abstract state

  use map.Map
  use map.Const

  type state = {
    ghost mutable num_stacks : int;

number of stacks built so far

    ghost mutable num_elts : int;

number of cards already seen

    ghost mutable values : map int card;

cards values seen, indexed in the order they have been seen, from 0 to num_elts-1

    ghost mutable stack_sizes : map int int;

sizes of these stacks, numbered from 0 to num_stacks - 1

    ghost mutable stacks : map int (map int int);

indexes of the cards in respective stacks

    ghost mutable positions : map int (int,int);

table that given a card index, provides its position, i.e. in which stack it is and at which height

    ghost mutable preds : map int int;

predecessors of cards, i.e. for each card index i, preds[i] provides an index of a card in the stack on the immediate left, whose value is smaller. Defaults to -1 if the card is on the leftmost stack.

  }

Invariants on the abstract state

  predicate inv (s:state) =
     0 <= s.num_stacks <= s.num_elts

the number of stacks is less or equal the number of cards

  /\ (s.num_elts > 0 -> s.num_stacks > 0)

when there is at least one card, there is at least one stack

  /\ (forall i. 0 <= i < s.num_stacks ->
         s.stack_sizes[i] >= 1

stacks are non-empty

      /\ forall j. 0 <= j < s.stack_sizes[i] ->
           0 <= s.stacks[i][j] < s.num_elts)

contents of stacks are valid card indexes

  /\ (forall i. 0 <= i < s.num_elts ->
       let is,ip = s.positions[i] in
       0 <= is < s.num_stacks &&
       let st = s.stacks[is] in
         0 <= ip < s.stack_sizes[is] &&
         st[ip] = i)

the position table of cards is correct, i.e. when (is,ip) = s.positions[i] then card i indeed occurs in stack is at height ip

  /\ (forall is. 0 <= is < s.num_stacks ->
        forall ip. 0 <= ip < s.stack_sizes[is] ->
        let idx = s.stacks[is][ip] in
        (is,ip) = s.positions[idx])

positions is the proper inverse of stacks

  /\ (forall i. 0 <= i < s.num_stacks ->
        let stack_i = s.stacks[i] in
        forall j,k. 0 <= j < k < s.stack_sizes[i] ->
           stack_i[j] < stack_i[k])

in a given stack, indexes are increasing from bottom to top

  /\ (forall i. 0 <= i < s.num_stacks ->
        let stack_i = s.stacks[i] in
        forall j,k. 0 <= j <= k < s.stack_sizes[i] ->
           s.values[stack_i[j]] >= s.values[stack_i[k]])

in a given stack, card values are decreasing from bottom to top

  /\ (forall i. 0 <= i < s.num_elts ->
       let pred = s.preds[i] in
       -1 <= pred < s.num_elts &&

the predecessor is a valid index or -1

       pred < i /\

predecessor is always a smaller index

       let is,_ip = s.positions[i] in
       if pred < 0 then is = 0

if predecessor is -1 then i is in leftmost stack

       else
         s.values[pred] < s.values[i] /\

if predecessor is not -1, it denotes a card with smaller value...

         is > 0 &&

...the card is not on the leftmost stack...

         let ps,_pp = s.positions[pred] in
         ps = is - 1)

...and predecessor is in the stack on the immediate left

Programs

  use ref.Ref
  exception Return int

  let ghost play_card (c:card) (s:state) : unit
    requires { inv s }
    writes   { s }
    ensures  { inv s }
    ensures  { s.num_elts = (old s).num_elts + 1 }
    ensures  { s.values = (old s).values[(old s).num_elts <- c] }
  =
    let ghost pred = ref (-1) in
  try
    for i = 0 to s.num_stacks - 1 do
      invariant { if i=0 then !pred = -1 else
        let stack_im1 = s.stacks[i-1] in
        let stack_im1_size = s.stack_sizes[i-1] in
        let top_stack_im1 = stack_im1[stack_im1_size - 1] in
        !pred = top_stack_im1 /\
        c > s.values[!pred]  /\
        0 <= !pred < s.num_elts /\
        let ps,_pp = s.positions[!pred] in
        ps = i - 1
      }
      let stack_i = s.stacks[i] in
      let stack_i_size = s.stack_sizes[i] in
      let top_stack_i = stack_i[stack_i_size - 1] in
      if c <= s.values[top_stack_i] then raise (Return i);
      assert { 0 <= top_stack_i < s.num_elts };
      assert { let is,ip = s.positions[top_stack_i] in
        0 <= is < s.num_stacks &&
        0 <= ip < s.stack_sizes[is] &&
        s.stacks[is][ip] = top_stack_i &&
        is = i /\ ip = stack_i_size - 1
      };
      pred := top_stack_i
    done;
    (* we add a new stack *)
    let idx = s.num_elts in
    let i = s.num_stacks in
    let stack_i = s.stacks[i] in
    let new_stack_i = stack_i[0 <- idx] in
    s.num_elts <- idx + 1;
    s.values <- s.values[idx <- c];
    s.num_stacks <- s.num_stacks + 1;
    s.stack_sizes <- s.stack_sizes[i <- 1];
    s.stacks <- s.stacks[i <- new_stack_i];
    s.positions <- s.positions[idx <- i,0];
    s.preds <- s.preds[idx <- !pred]
  with Return i ->
         let stack_i = s.stacks[i] in
         let stack_i_size = s.stack_sizes[i] in
         (* we put c on top of stack i *)
         let idx = s.num_elts in
         let new_stack_i = stack_i[stack_i_size <- idx] in
         s.num_elts <- idx + 1;
         s.values <- s.values[idx <- c];
         (* s.num_stacks unchanged *)
         s.stack_sizes <- s.stack_sizes[i <- stack_i_size + 1];
         s.stacks <- s.stacks[i <- new_stack_i];
         s.positions <- s.positions[idx <- i,stack_i_size];
         s.preds <- s.preds[idx <- !pred];
  end

play_card c i s pushes the card c on state s

  use list.List
  use list.Length
  use list.NthNoOpt

  let rec play_cards (input: list int) (s: state) : unit
    requires { inv s }
    variant  { input }
    writes   { s }
    ensures  { inv s }
    ensures  { s.num_elts = (old s).num_elts + length input }
    ensures  { forall i. 0 <= i < (old s).num_elts ->
                 s.values[i] = (old s).values[i] }
    ensures  { forall i. (old s).num_elts <= i < s.num_elts ->
                 s.values[i] = nth (i - (old s).num_elts) input }
  =
    match input with
    | Nil -> ()
    | Cons c rem -> play_card c s; play_cards rem s
    end

  type seq 'a = { seqlen: int; seqval: map int 'a }

  predicate increasing_subsequence (s:seq int) (l:list int) =
    0 <= s.seqlen <= length l &&
    (* subsequence *)
    ((forall i. 0 <= i < s.seqlen -> 0 <= s.seqval[i] < length l)
    /\ (forall i,j. 0 <= i < j < s.seqlen -> s.seqval[i] < s.seqval[j]))
    (* increasing *)
    && (forall i,j. 0 <= i < j < s.seqlen ->
          nth s.seqval[i] l < nth s.seqval[j] l)

  use PigeonHole

  let ghost play_game (input: list int) : state
    ensures { exists s: seq int.  s.seqlen = result.num_stacks /\
        increasing_subsequence s input
      }
    ensures { forall s: seq int.
        increasing_subsequence s input -> s.seqlen <= result.num_stacks
      }
  = let s = {
      num_elts = 0;
      values = Const.const (-1) ;
      num_stacks = 0;
      stack_sizes = Const.const 0;
      stacks = Const.const (Const.const (-1));
      positions = Const.const (-1,-1);
      preds = Const.const (-1);
    }
    in
    play_cards input s;

This is ghost code to build an increasing subsequence of maximal length

    let ns = s.num_stacks in
    if ns = 0 then
      begin
        assert { input = Nil };
        let seq = { seqlen = 0 ; seqval = Const.const (-1) } in
        assert { increasing_subsequence seq input };
        s
      end
    else
    let last_stack = s.stacks[ns-1] in
    let idx = ref (last_stack[s.stack_sizes[ns-1]-1]) in
    let seq = ref (Const.const (-1)) in
    for i = ns-1 downto 0 do
       invariant { -1 <= !idx < s.num_elts }
       invariant { i >= 0 -> !idx >= 0 &&
         let is,_ = s.positions[!idx] in is = i }
       invariant { i+1 < ns -> !idx < !seq[i+1] }
       invariant { 0 <= i < ns-1 -> s.values[!idx] < s.values[!seq[i+1]] }
       invariant { forall j. i < j < ns -> 0 <= !seq[j] < s.num_elts }
       invariant { forall j,k. i < j < k < ns -> !seq[j] < !seq[k] }
       invariant { forall j,k. i < j < k < ns ->
         s.values[!seq[j]] < s.values[!seq[k]]
       }
       seq := !seq[i <- !idx];
       idx := s.preds[!idx];
    done;
    let sigma = { seqlen = ns ; seqval = !seq } in
    assert { forall i. 0 <= i < length input -> nth i input = s.values[i] };
    assert { increasing_subsequence sigma input };

These are assertions to prove that no increasing subsequence of length larger than the number of stacks may exists

    assert {  (* non-injectivity *)
      forall sigma: seq int.
        increasing_subsequence sigma input /\ sigma.seqlen > s.num_stacks ->
        let f = fun i ->
          let si = sigma.seqval[i] in
          let stack_i,_ = s.positions[si] in
          stack_i
        in range f sigma.seqlen s.num_stacks &&
           not (injective f sigma.seqlen s.num_stacks)

    };
    assert {  (* non-injectivity *)
      forall sigma: seq int.
        increasing_subsequence sigma input /\ sigma.seqlen > s.num_stacks ->
        exists i,j.
          0 <= i < j < sigma.seqlen &&
          let si = sigma.seqval[i] in
          let sj = sigma.seqval[j] in
          let stack_i,_pi = s.positions[si] in
          let stack_j,_pj = s.positions[sj] in
          stack_i = stack_j
    };
    assert { (* contradiction from non-injectivity *)
      forall sigma: seq int.
        increasing_subsequence sigma input /\ sigma.seqlen > s.num_stacks ->
        forall i,j.
          0 <= i < j < sigma.seqlen ->
          let si = sigma.seqval[i] in
          let sj = sigma.seqval[j] in
          let stack_i,pi = s.positions[si] in
          let stack_j,pj = s.positions[sj] in
          stack_i = stack_j ->
          si < sj && pi < pj && s.values[si] < s.values[sj]
    };
    s

  let ghost test () =
    (* the list given in the problem description
       9, 7, 10, 9, 5, 4, and 10 *)
    play_game
      (Cons 9 (Cons 7 (Cons 10 (Cons 9 (Cons 5 (Cons 4 (Cons 10 Nil)))))))

end

Gluing abstract version with the original idiomatic code

module PatienceFull

  use int.Int
  use PatienceAbstract

glue between the ghost state and the stacks of cards

  use list.List
  use list.Length
  use list.NthNoOpt
  use map.Map

  predicate glue_stack (s:state) (i:int) (st:list card) =
      length st = s.stack_sizes[i] /\
      let stack_i = s.stacks[i] in
      forall j. 0 <= i < length st ->
        nth j st = s.values[stack_i[j]]

  predicate glue (s:state) (st:list (list card)) =
    length st = s.num_stacks /\
    forall i. 0 <= i < length st ->
      glue_stack s i (nth i st)

playing a card

  use list.RevAppend
  use ref.Ref
  exception Return

end

Why3 Proof Results for Project "patience"

Theory "patience.PigeonHole": fully verified

ObligationsAlt-Ergo 2.0.0Z3 4.5.0
VC pigeon_hole------
split_goal_right
VC pigeon_hole.00.00---
VC pigeon_hole.10.00---
VC pigeon_hole.20.00---
VC pigeon_hole.30.00---
VC pigeon_hole.40.01---
VC pigeon_hole.50.00---
VC pigeon_hole.60.00---
VC pigeon_hole.70.00---
VC pigeon_hole.80.01---
VC pigeon_hole.90.00---
VC pigeon_hole.100.00---
VC pigeon_hole.110.00---
VC pigeon_hole.120.00---
VC pigeon_hole.130.00---
VC pigeon_hole.14---0.02
VC pigeon_hole.150.00---
VC pigeon_hole.160.00---

Theory "patience.PatienceCode": fully verified

ObligationsAlt-Ergo 2.0.0
VC wf_rev_append_stacks0.03
VC push_card0.07
VC play_cards0.01
VC play_game0.00

Theory "patience.PatienceAbstract": fully verified

ObligationsAlt-Ergo 2.0.0Z3 4.5.0
VC play_card------
split_goal_right
VC play_card.00.00---
VC play_card.1------
introduce_premises
VC play_card.1.0------
inline_goal
VC play_card.1.0.0------
split_goal_right
VC play_card.1.0.0.00.05---
VC play_card.1.0.0.10.05---
VC play_card.1.0.0.20.05---
VC play_card.1.0.0.30.05---
VC play_card.1.0.0.4---0.06
VC play_card.1.0.0.5---0.04
VC play_card.1.0.0.60.09---
VC play_card.1.0.0.70.09---
VC play_card.1.0.0.80.09---
VC play_card.1.0.0.90.16---
VC play_card.1.0.0.100.09---
VC play_card.1.0.0.110.23---
VC play_card.1.0.0.12---0.04
VC play_card.1.0.0.13---0.06
VC play_card.1.0.0.14---0.04
VC play_card.1.0.0.15---0.04
VC play_card.1.0.0.16---0.04
VC play_card.1.0.0.17---0.02
VC play_card.1.0.0.180.21---
VC play_card.1.0.0.19---0.03
VC play_card.1.0.0.20---0.04
VC play_card.20.02---
VC play_card.30.02---
VC play_card.40.01---
VC play_card.50.04---
VC play_card.60.00---
VC play_card.7------
introduce_premises
VC play_card.7.0------
inline_goal
VC play_card.7.0.0------
split_goal_right
VC play_card.7.0.0.00.04---
VC play_card.7.0.0.10.04---
VC play_card.7.0.0.20.04---
VC play_card.7.0.0.30.05---
VC play_card.7.0.0.4---0.04
VC play_card.7.0.0.5---0.03
VC play_card.7.0.0.60.06---
VC play_card.7.0.0.70.06---
VC play_card.7.0.0.80.06---
VC play_card.7.0.0.90.08---
VC play_card.7.0.0.100.08---
VC play_card.7.0.0.110.12---
VC play_card.7.0.0.12---0.04
VC play_card.7.0.0.13---0.07
VC play_card.7.0.0.14---0.03
VC play_card.7.0.0.15---0.02
VC play_card.7.0.0.16---0.03
VC play_card.7.0.0.17---0.02
VC play_card.7.0.0.180.08---
VC play_card.7.0.0.19---0.03
VC play_card.7.0.0.20---0.03
VC play_card.80.02---
VC play_card.90.02---
VC play_card.100.00---
VC play_cards0.04---
VC play_game------
split_goal_right
VC play_game.00.01---
VC play_game.10.01---
VC play_game.20.00---
VC play_game.30.01---
VC play_game.40.01---
VC play_game.50.01---
VC play_game.60.01---
VC play_game.70.00---
VC play_game.80.01---
VC play_game.90.00---
VC play_game.100.01---
VC play_game.110.00---
VC play_game.120.01---
VC play_game.130.02---
VC play_game.140.01---
VC play_game.150.04---
VC play_game.160.02---
VC play_game.170.02---
VC play_game.18---0.03
VC play_game.190.01---
VC play_game.200.08---
VC play_game.21---0.03
VC play_game.22---0.02
VC play_game.230.12---
VC play_game.240.00---
VC play_game.250.08---
VC play_game.260.00---